CHANGE UNIVERSE: JewelsMagazine
Glossary

EMERALD

Most valued of green gemstones, it takes its name from the vulgar Latin esmaralda /esmaraldus and the Greek smaragdus, meaning green gem. Those considered to be most valuable are of a dazzling deeper green, masterfully cut to exude their greatest brilliance.

RUBY

Red corundum, deriving its name from the Latin "ruber", meaning red,was known in ancient Sanskrit as ratnaraj, the gemstone of kings, and can be found in many royal seals and heraldic emblems. Prized for fiery beauty and durability, rubies, with a hardness of 9, are surpassed only by diamonds in that regard and some rubies are even rarer than comparable diamond counterparts.

SAPPHIRE

Blue corundum, the sapphire, takes its name from Greek Sappheiros, or blue stone with Cornflower or Kashmir sapphire, deemed most select and valued for its color. Orange-pink Padparadscha sapphireis a highly regarded rarity.

DIAMOND

Rightly deriving its name from the Latin and Greek origins of the word adamant, the diamond was thought to be, in ancient times nearly unbreakable. Cherished even then, they were generally gleaned from small deposits deposits sourced from India.

AQUAMARINE

Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina, "water of the sea") is a blue or turquoise variety of beryl. The gem-gravel placerdeposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. Clear yellow beryl, such as that occurring in Brazil, is sometimes called aquamarine chrysolite.

CITRINE

Citrine is the yellow to orange variety of Quartz. Natural Citrine is not common; most Citrine on the gem market is produced by heat treating Amethyst and Smoky Quartz. It takes a relatively low temperature to change the color light to golden yellow, and heating to higher temperatures will give the stone a darker yellow to brownish-red color.

GOLD

No precious metal is as legendary and beautiful as Gold. Its rarity, beauty, and enigma have provided it with status as a valuable commodity throughout the history of humanity. Gold has always been used as a monetary standard, and ancient gold jewelry and ornaments dating back centuries have been found throughout the world. Gold has always been and remains the most essential jewelry component, with most precious jewelry pieces created from Gold or inlaid with a Gold setting.

PLATINUM

Platinum is the most valued precious metal; its value exceeds even that of Gold. It has a beautiful silver-white color, and, unlike Silver, does not tarnish. It is unaffected by common household chemicals and will not get damaged or discolored by chlorine, bleach, or detergents.

Tiffany & Co

In 1837, Tiffany & Co., the most renowned of American jewelers, opened its doors in New York City as Tiffany & Young. Its specialties were fancy goods and stationary. While initially carrying only a small selection of jewelry, most of which was costume, owners Charles Lewis Tiffany and John P. Young soon expanded their business to fine jewelry imported from Europe.

Cartier

The illustrious firm of Cartier has been at the forefront of some of the most important jewelry design trends of the 20th century. Ranging from the opulence of La Belle �poque, the geometry and exoticism of the Art Deco movement to the development of the classic wristwatch and ornate clocks, Cartier has created some of the most iconic pieces in the history of jewelry.

Van Cleef & Arpels

The history of Van Cleef and Arpels began with a marriage. In 1898, Alfred Van Cleef wed his cousin, Estelle Arpels. Both sides of the family worked in the jewellery industry. Alfred's father, Charles, was an esteemed Dutch diamond cutter who moved to Paris during Napoleon III's reign.

Oscar Heyman

American jeweler and manufacturer that first gained attention in the 1920�s. In 1906, Oscar and Nathan Heyman immigrated to the United States from Latvia. Thanks to an apprenticeship at their uncle�s Faberg� workshop, they arrived with a skill that made them instantly employable: they could work with platinum, a metal relatively new at the time.

Raymond Yard

Raymond Yard began his career in the jewelry industry at the tender age of thirteen when he became a messenger boy at the well-established firm of Marcus & Co. in New York. Over the next twenty-four years, Yard firmly established himself with the company�s well-heeled clientele and received a thorough education in all aspects of the jewelry trade. He came to understand and value the highest standards of gem material and craftsmanship.

JE Caldwell

Venerable American jeweler from Philadelphia known for its Art Nouveau and Art Deco jewels. In 1839, James Emmott Caldwell began to supply wealthy Philadelphians with stylish European jewelry, silver, and objets d'art. Previously Caldwell had trained as a silversmith in New York City. Upon opening, Caldwell�s business quickly flourished.

Retro jewelry (1945-1960)

Inspired by Hollywood, Retro jewelry is colorful, bold and elaborate. Commonly worn were large cocktail rings, bracelets, watches, necklaces and charm bracelets.

Art Deco jewelry (1915-1935)

A stilted, stylized design which was named after the 1925 International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts, held in Paris, France. Much of the Art Deco design was a transition from the earlier Art Nouveau, and as with the Art Mouveau epoch, was inspired by the Art of the American Indian, ancient Egyptian, and Greek and Roman architecture.

Edwardian jewelry (1901-1915)

The Edwardian period started with the decease of Queen Victoria and her son Edward became king. During this period expensive many of the Edwardian designed incorporates more expensive gems such as diamonds, emeralds and rubies in their elaborate designs.

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